The most common therapeutic approaches and interventions based on scientific knowledge and evidence-based research are:
Applied behavior analysis is a systematic way of observing an individual’s behavior, identifying the desirable changes in that behavior, and selecting and using methods suitable for achieving those changes. ABA therapy is based on the idea that behavior can be changed by manipulating a situation that precedes that behavior (antecedent) and / or by manipulating what happens after that behavior (consequence). More information can be found here.
The TEACCH approach originated in North Carolina, USA, as a community organization providing services in the field of education, home care and employment support, but today its elements are used worldwide among other approaches. This approach is based on understanding the “culture of autism” – the characteristics of the way of thinking and behaving in people with autism spectrum disorder and creating an individual plan for each client and student. More information can be found e.g., here.
ESDM is available to children with ASD aged 12-60 months. It combines elements of several approaches: the more well-known Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), Pivotal response treatment (PRT) and the original Denver model. It builds on working with the child in his natural environment and on the balanced development of the child in all areas (especially in communication, cognitive abilities, social skills, fine and gross motor skills, children’s play).
The methodology is based on the mutual sharing of emotions and the child’s personal relationship with the therapist. However, it is a time-consuming therapy – it is recommended to do 20-25 hours of therapy per week over a long period of time. The involvement of parents is a part of the therapy of course; they will learn the right way of communication, gain the ability to motivate the child and involve him in joint activities and thus support the child’s development and learning. More information here.
DTT is a structured techniquebased on ABA that divides skills into small, “separate” components. The therapist systematically teaches these skills one by one. Therapists use the so-called reinforcement for the desired behavior. For a child, it can be candy or a small toy. DTT is used in children aged 2-6 years, especially to learn the following skills:
JASPER represents a short-term approach that focuses on the basics of social communication: the ability to pay attention, imitation and play. JASPER begins with the evaluation of the child. The examination usually takes about 15 minutes, the child plays with a set of toys such as dolls, doll furniture, safari buses and animal toys. The therapist monitors the child’s eye contact, his interactions with toys and his involvement. The skills acquired through these play meetings help children in other areas of their lives and social environment.